Tag Archives: PPACA

The old and the beautiful: How age and gender affect costs and premiums in commercial healthcare

We generally consider living a long life an important goal, and it certainly does beat the alternative. But one side effect of getting older is that, as we age, we typically acquire additional acute and chronic medical conditions, and the prevalence of many common chronic medical conditions increases significantly. Age/gender rating is an area in which actuarial considerations are often in direct tension with social or public policy considerations: there is a natural tension between the policy goals of making coverage more affordable for older people (with higher average costs) and the goal of encouraging younger people (with lower average costs) to purchase health insurance coverage.

In an article first published in the magazine The Actuary, Milliman consultants Doug Norris, Hans Leida, Erica Rode, and Travis (T.J.) Gray explore how age and gender affect costs and premiums in commercial healthcare.

How do cost-sharing reduction (CSR) subsidies affect your state?

The fate of the CSR subsidies in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)—or rather, whether they’ll continue to be federally funded—is a highly anticipated decision for healthcare stakeholders nationwide. Cost-sharing reduction subsidies are payments made to insurers that reduce copays and deductibles for qualifying individuals and families earning up to 250% of the federal poverty level (FPL) who purchase health insurance through the insurance marketplaces. Their government funding is currently under legal challenge, awaiting the White House’s decision whether or not to drop the House v. Price lawsuit.

Recently, Politico.com reported that Republicans are inching closer to a decision regarding the fate of CSR funding. As this decision will affect healthcare stakeholders in every state, it is important for policymakers to understand the health and stability of the individual market and how subsidies have affected health insurance consumers. Recently, my colleagues and I at Milliman prepared a profile of the individual health insurance market for each state along with the District of Columbia. The profile summarizes insurer financials, marketplace enrollment, and federal assistance provided to households purchasing insurance coverage through the insurance marketplaces.

We’ve compiled some of our 2017 data into an infographic that takes a closer look at ACA cost-sharing subsidies to enable stakeholders to better understand the population currently receiving assistance and the amount of assistance being provided. The graphic looks at two metrics: the estimated average annual CSR subsidy per qualifying individual and the number of individuals receiving CSRs by state in 2017. Results below provide a clearer picture of which states’ populations more heavily rely on CSR subsidies and by how much. Florida has the largest number of CSR recipients of any state, with approximately 1 million recipients in 2017. On a national level, we estimate that there are 5.7 million individuals covered by CSR subsidies nationally, and the sum of federal CSR expenditures will exceed $5.8 billion in CY 2017.

Cost-sharing reduction

More data and analysis can be found at Milliman.com/hcr.

This blog post first appeared on LinkedIn.

Overview of reinsurance and high-risk pools in the individual market

While there is significant uncertainty regarding current healthcare reform legislation, reinsurance and high-risk pool (HRP) programs are likely to play a role in attempting to stabilize individual market enrollment and premiums. In this paper, Milliman consultants Fritz Busch and Paul Houchens examine the following issues related to reinsurance and HRPs.

• The historical uses of HRPs prior to the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)
• The role of reinsurance under the ACA, including emerging state-based programs developed using Section 1332 State Innovation Waivers
• The proposed usage of reinsurance and HRP under the American Health Care Act (AHCA), as passed by the House on May 4, 2017
• Considerations for states that are examining the creation and deployment of these types of mechanisms

Preexisting conditions and the effects on health insurance

Solving the preexisting conditions issue is a significant hurdle in healthcare reform. Making health insurance available to individuals with preexisting conditions—while also ensuring affordability in a system in which health insurance is optional—has proven to be very challenging so far.

In this article, Milliman’s Tom Snook discusses why the coverage of preexisting conditions is a key issue in health insurance, particularly with respect to affordability and sustainability, and outlines varying approaches to addressing it.

How might healthcare reform 2.0 affect dental care benefits?

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) made pediatric dental care an essential health benefit that issuers must offer on state exchanges. If proposed changes to the ACA are enacted, the dental benefits industry must again determine how to proceed in an evolving landscape. In this paper, Milliman’s Joanne Fontana discusses several key components of the ACA that, if amended or removed, would affect dental benefits. She also provides considerations for dental insurers that can turn another potential round of reform into opportunity.

Exploring the future of CSR subsidies

The potential nonpayment of cost-sharing reduction (CSR) subsidies to health insurers, as required by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), could create instability in the individual market. Issuers are now contemplating their exchange participation plans for 2018, and the future of cost-sharing reductions will play a key role in their decisions. This report by Milliman’s Pedro Alcocer, Frederick Busch, and Jason Karcher explores the possible legislative and regulatory outcomes and potential issuer responses.