In the latest Critical Point podcast, healthcare consultant Pamela Pelizzari discusses alternative payment methods, bundled payment, accountable care organizations (ACOs), and more. She explains in more detail what is meant by the term alternative payment model and why people should be interested. Pamela also explains how ACOs fit in and how alternative payments fit with Medicare and Medicaid.
To listen to this episode of Critical Point, click here.
Health insurance is increasingly difficult to afford. As reported in the 2018 Milliman Medical Index (MMI), the typical American family of four covered by an average employer-sponsored preferred provider organization (PPO) plan will have annual healthcare expenditures totaling approximately $28,166. Californians are not exempt from this trend, also paying increasingly high costs for their healthcare. According to the 2013 Berkeley Forum report, employer-sponsored health insurance premium rates were projected to nearly double from 2011 to 2022, ultimately reaching $31,728 for family coverage in 2022. Those premium increases will be borne by both employers and employees. According to the MMI, on average premiums are funded approximately two-thirds by employers and one-third by employees through payroll deduction.
Some good news for Californians is that they would likely be paying a lot more without managed care plans that use the delegated model. In brief, the term “delegated model” describes a health insurance plan where financial risk for healthcare services is transferred from an insurance company to healthcare providers (e.g., physicians or hospitals). Most commonly this involves the insurance company paying a fixed, per capita dollar amount (a capitation rate) to a group of physicians, and the physicians assume financial responsibility to provide all professional services for each health plan member. They may also have full or partial risk for hospital services provided to those same members. In California, capitation can only be used in health maintenance organization (HMO) plans. Other common types of plans, PPO-style plans and other fee-for-service (FFS) plans, cannot use capitation.
Measuring the impact of the delegated model on healthcare expenditures is tricky for at least two reasons. First, the average person who enrolls in an HMO plan might have a different health status from the average PPO/FFS plan enrollee. For example, they might be younger, or just healthier than average. Second, per capita healthcare costs vary by geographic area, for a variety of reasons. HMOs tend to be concentrated in urban areas, while PPO/FFS plans are prevalent in all areas of the state.
IHA Atlas data quantifies savings
Fortunately, data published by the Integrated Healthcare Association (IHA) allows us to compare per capita healthcare expenditures for HMO versus PPO/FFS plans, adjusted for differences in the mix of members by health status and by geographic area. Results indicate that for commercial health insurance plans (i.e., non-Medicare, non-Medicaid), total healthcare expenditures per capita are lower under HMO plans than under PPO/FFS plans, as shown in the graph below. They were 5% lower in 2013 and 7% lower in 2015.*
Over 25 million American adults report suffering from chronic pain on a daily basis, and a range of adverse health outcomes accompanies their pain. Beginning in the early 2000s, opioid analgesics were increasingly seen as a solution to the problem of under-treatment that had been a concern in the 1990s. From 1991 to 2011, the number of opioid prescriptions filled at U.S. retail pharmacies nearly tripled, increasing from 76 million to 219 million per year, though those numbers have started to decrease since the peak in 2011.
Despite the recent decrease in prescriptions of opioids, the human toll of the opioid crisis has continued to intensify. Illegally acquired heroin and synthetic opioids such as fentanyl have become the leading cause of overdose deaths. Opioid overdose deaths are now the single largest factor slowing the growth in U.S. life expectancy, and if current trends continue, opioid overdose deaths could outnumber suicides by 2019.
In this article, Milliman’s Stoddard Davenport and Katie Matthews help explain the scale of the opioid epidemic within the insurance industry.
Based on a sample of over 42 million people with commercial insurance, nearly 1.3 million Medicare beneficiaries, and a Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of Medicaid beneficiaries in 49 states, we estimate that over 1.5 million insured Americans were diagnosed with an opioid use disorder in 2015 (the most recent year available). Figures 3 and 4 summarize these findings by payer. These results (and others presented throughout this report) have been age- and area-adjusted to be representative of the U.S. insured population as of 2015 using U.S. Census Bureau data.12
Figure 3: Diagnosed opioid use disorder by payer, 2015 (or most recent year)
We found that about 41.4% of those with diagnosed opioid use disorder were commercially insured, 15.9% were Medicare beneficiaries, and 42.7% were Medicaid beneficiaries. Overall, the diagnosed prevalence rate of opioid use disorder was 3.28 per 1,000 for the commercially insured, 5.39 per 1,000 for those with Medicare, and 8.90 per 1,000 for those with Medicaid. Across all insurance payers, we found that the prevalence of opioid use disorder was 4.91 per 1,000.
Figure 4: National estimates of opioid use disorder diagnosis by payer, 2015 (or most recent year)
||Diagnosed prevalence per 1,000
||Total diagnosed nationally No. (%)
The authors also highlight the rate of opioid use disorder by age and sex.
Rates of opioid use disorder varied widely by age and sex, with men generally experiencing higher rates of opioid use disorder through age 65, and women experiencing higher rates from 66 and older. Rates were quite low through childhood, followed by a marked increase in the late teen years, peaking in the mid-20s at a rate of 5.47 per 1,000 for women (at age 24) and 10.00 per 1,000 for men (at age 25). Rates showed a sharp drop-off in the late 20s, followed by a rise to another peak in the mid-30s of about 3.76 per 1,000 for women (at age 35) and 6.37 per 1,000 for men (at age 36). From the late 30s through age 64, the gap between men and women closed and both experienced prevalence rates hovering between 3.50 to 4.00 per 1,000 through retirement age. Opioid use disorder rates for Medicare beneficiaries were generally higher for women than for men, and tapered off with advancing age. Comparable data for Medicaid were not available.
Social factors have a substantial impact on healthcare outcomes and spending, particularly with respect to lower-income populations. As the nation’s largest payer for healthcare services for lower-income populations, Medicaid is front and center when it comes to these issues. This report coauthored by Milliman’s John Meerschaert and Shelly Brandel identifies practical strategies that states can deploy to support Medicaid managed care plans and their network providers in addressing social issues.
This article was published by The Commonwealth Fund. Manatt’s Deborah Bachrach and Jocelyn Guyer and RTI International’s Sarah Meier also co-authored the article.
In this report, Milliman consultants summarize calendar year 2016 administrative costs of organizations reporting Medicaid experience under the Title XIX Medicaid line of business on the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) annual statement. The primary purpose of the report is to provide reference and benchmarking information for certain key administrative expense categories used in the day-to-day analysis of Medicaid managed care organization (MCO) financial performance. It also explores the differences among various types of MCOs using available segmentation attributes defined from the reported financial statements.
This report by Milliman’s Jeremy Palmer and Chris Pettit summarizes calendar year 2016 financial results of organizations reporting Medicaid experience under the Title XIX Medicaid line of business on the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) annual statement. The primary purpose of this report is to provide reference and benchmarking information for certain key financial metrics used in the day-to-day analysis of Medicaid managed care organization (MCO) financial performance. This report explores the differences among various types of MCOs using available segmentation attributes defined from the reported financial statements.