In the United States in 2014, more than 3 million individuals were estimated to have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, including many undiagnosed individuals. In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded its HCV testing recommendations to target all adults born between 1945 and 1965, in addition to at-risk individuals. This has led to an increase in newly diagnosed patients. Few studies have explored the medical cost or clinical status of patients who are newly diagnosed with HCV. This research by Milliman consultants compares the demographics, comorbidities, and medical costs of patients who are newly diagnosed and those who were previously diagnosed with HCV infection.
Health insurance is increasingly difficult to afford. As reported in the 2018 Milliman Medical Index (MMI), the typical American family of four covered by an average employer-sponsored preferred provider organization (PPO) plan will have annual healthcare expenditures totaling approximately $28,166. Californians are not exempt from this trend, also paying increasingly high costs for their healthcare. According to the 2013 Berkeley Forum report, employer-sponsored health insurance premium rates were projected to nearly double from 2011 to 2022, ultimately reaching $31,728 for family coverage in 2022. Those premium increases will be borne by both employers and employees. According to the MMI, on average premiums are funded approximately two-thirds by employers and one-third by employees through payroll deduction.
Some good news for Californians is that they would likely be paying a lot more without managed care plans that use the delegated model. In brief, the term “delegated model” describes a health insurance plan where financial risk for healthcare services is transferred from an insurance company to healthcare providers (e.g., physicians or hospitals). Most commonly this involves the insurance company paying a fixed, per capita dollar amount (a capitation rate) to a group of physicians, and the physicians assume financial responsibility to provide all professional services for each health plan member. They may also have full or partial risk for hospital services provided to those same members. In California, capitation can only be used in health maintenance organization (HMO) plans. Other common types of plans, PPO-style plans and other fee-for-service (FFS) plans, cannot use capitation.
Measuring the impact of the delegated model on healthcare expenditures is tricky for at least two reasons. First, the average person who enrolls in an HMO plan might have a different health status from the average PPO/FFS plan enrollee. For example, they might be younger, or just healthier than average. Second, per capita healthcare costs vary by geographic area, for a variety of reasons. HMOs tend to be concentrated in urban areas, while PPO/FFS plans are prevalent in all areas of the state.
IHA Atlas data quantifies savings
Fortunately, data published by the Integrated Healthcare Association (IHA) allows us to compare per capita healthcare expenditures for HMO versus PPO/FFS plans, adjusted for differences in the mix of members by health status and by geographic area. Results indicate that for commercial health insurance plans (i.e., non-Medicare, non-Medicaid), total healthcare expenditures per capita are lower under HMO plans than under PPO/FFS plans, as shown in the graph below. They were 5% lower in 2013 and 7% lower in 2015.*
When: Thursday, August 2, at 10 a.m. PST/1 p.m. EST
Topic: Identifying wasteful spending in healthcare
About this chat
In recent years, few issues have been spoken about more than the need to curb unnecessary healthcare spending across the United States. As discussions continue at various parts of the government, Milliman invites you to join our #healthwaste Twitter chat. The chat features Milliman MedInsight consultants Rich Moyer and Marcos Dachary, who will discuss ways in which the healthcare industry can identify wasteful spending and what can be done to address the underlying issues. Rich and Marcos will be joined by two of the premier experts in this area, Dr. Mark Fendrick of the Center for Value-Based Insurance Design (V-BID), and Dr. Michael Chernew of Harvard Medical School.
Rules of engagement
• To participate in the chat, follow the hashtag #healthwaste.
• Answer Q1, Q2, Q3… with A1, A2, A3….
• Remember to include the hashtag #healthwaste in all your tweets.
• If you are new to Twitter chats, considering using TweetChat.com.
With the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) came a modification to how the true out-of-pocket (TrOOP) amount was calculated through 2019. With significant changes to Medicare Part D from the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018 and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Final Rule, one provision from the ACA that has gone largely unnoticed is the forthcoming TrOOP cliff in 2020, for which plan sponsors should prepare. Milliman actuaries Van Phan and Todd Wanta provide some perspective in this paper.
Milliman’s new podcast, Critical Point, presents unique perspectives from the firm’s professionals. The podcast’s debut episode, “Healthcare waste and how to find it,” features Jackie Sehr, Marcos Dachary, and Dr. David Mirkin from Milliman MedInsight®, a data warehousing and healthcare analytics platform. In this episode, they discuss healthcare waste and approaches to minimize waste and reduce unnecessary costs across the American healthcare system.
To listen to this episode of Critical Point, click here.
Milliman recently released the results of its 2017 U.S. Group Disability Market Survey, a comprehensive report that analyzes the short- and long-term disability (STD/LTD) market, including sales and in-force business.
In total, 25 disability insurers representing over 90% of the market contributed data to the survey, which provides analysis of premiums, cases, and covered lives in 2016 and 2017 for all participating companies. The report ranks participating companies by both STD and LTD in-force premium and new sales totals, and offers insight into current trends in the group disability market.
We’re continuing to see strong growth in the marketplace despite consolidation among U.S. group disability insurers. And while the market consolidation may have played a factor in poorer performance for some insurers in 2017 compared to previous years, overall new sales for STD and LTD markets are up by a combined 7.3%.
Survey highlights include:
• Combined STD and LTD in-force premium for participants was approximately $16.7 billion in 2017 compared with $16.0 billion in 2016.
• STD new sales premiums saw an 8.5% increase from 2016 to 2017, while LTD new sales premiums increased by 6.6%.
• Unum, Lincoln Financial Group, and Cigna retained the top three spots for new STD sales premium in 2017. Unum, The Hartford, and MetLife took the top three spots for new LTD sales premium.
• Average STD premium per life increased by 0.9% for in-force business, and by 2.0% for new sales; average LTD premium per life increased by 2.7% for in-force business and by 3.3% for new sales.
Copies of the full report are only available to participating companies. For a summary of results, click here.